Troubleshooting Cloud Foundry

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This topic assumes you are using BOSH CLI v2.

This guide provides help with diagnosing and resolving issues encountered when installing and running Cloud Foundry.

Troubleshoot Cloud Foundry Installation Issues

An installation or update can fail for reasons that have nothing to do with the software that you are installing. If an installation or update fails once, start over and try again. If it fails a second time, use the following information to troubleshoot the issue.

Timeouts in “creating bound missing vms” Phase

When deploying Cloud Foundry with BOSH, the “creating bound missing vms” phase occurs after package compilation. A process in the “creating bound missing vms” phase can time out if a BOSH Agent fails to start correctly or if the Agent cannot connect to the NATS message bus.

. . .
Started preparing package compilation > Finding packages to compile. Done (00:00:00)

Started creating bound missing vms
Started creating bound missing vms > api_worker_z1/0. Failed: Timed out pinging to 1da06ba3de2f after 600 seconds (00:12:45)

Error 450002: Timed out pinging to 1da06ba3de2f after 600 seconds

Perform the following steps to determine the cause of the time out:

Use your IaaS console to make sure the timed-out VM is booting correctly

For details on how to use your IaaS console to make sure the timed out VM is booting correctly, see your IaaS documentation.

Check the Agent log on the VM that timed out for a “handshake” connection between the BOSH Director and the Agent

  1. Use your IaaS virtualization console to open a terminal window on the VM that timed out and log in as root.

  2. Open the /var/vcap/bosh/log/current log file in a text editor.

  3. Search the log file for a “handshake” between the BOSH Director and the BOSH Agent. This connection is represented in the log as a ping and a pong:

    . . .
    2013-10-03_14:35:48.58456 #[608] INFO: Message: {"method"=>"ping", "arguments"=>[], reply_to"=>"director.b668-1660944090e4"}
    2013-10-03_14:35:48.60182 #[608] INFO: reply_to:director.b668-1660944090e4: payload: {:value=>"pong"}
    
  4. If the handshake does not complete, the Agent cannot communicate with the Director.

Use Netcat to test for routing issues to the NATS IP

  1. Use your IaaS virtualization console to open a terminal window on the VM that timed out and log in as root.

  2. Open the /var/vcap/bosh/log/current log file in a text editor.

  3. Search the beginning of the log file for a line labeled INFO: loaded new infrastructure settings. This line contains a JSON blob of key/value pairs representing the expected infrastructure for the BOSH Agent.

    In this line, locate the IP address and port following nats://nats:nats@.

    . . .
    2013-10-03_14:35:21.83222 #[608] INFO: loaded new infrastructure settings:  {"vm"=>{"name"=>"vm-4d80ede4-b0a5", "id"=>"vm-360"}, {"user"=>"agent", "password"=>"agent"}}, "mbus"=>"nats://nats:nats@192.0.2.17:4222", "env"=>{"bosh"}}}}}
    
  4. Run the Netcat command nc -v IP-ADDRESS PORT to determine whether it is possible to establish a connection between the NATS message bus and this VM.

    $ nc -v 192.0.2.17 4222
    Connection to 192.0.2.17 4222 port [tcp/*] succeeded!
    

Out of Disk Space Error

If, during installation, log files fill all available disk space on a computer, the operating system reports an “Out of Disk Space” error.

To resolve this issue, delete these log files from the tmp directory of the affected computer manually or by rebooting.

Troubleshoot Cloud Foundry Operation Issues

If you have not done so already, set an alias for the BOSH Director of the environment you are troubleshooting. You need this alias to run the BOSH CLI commands in this section.

Run the following command to create a local alias for the BOSH Director using the BOSH CLI:

bosh alias-env MY-ENV -e DIRECTOR-IP-ADDRESS --ca-cert PATH/TO/CERT

Replace the placeholder text with the following:

  • MY-ENV: Enter an alias for the BOSH Director, such as dev or prod.
  • DIRECTOR-IP-ADDRESS: Enter the IP address of your BOSH Director VM.
  • PATH/TO/CERT: Enter the path to the Director CA certificate.

For example:

$ bosh alias-env dev -e 10.0.0.3 --ca-cert /var/workspaces/default/ca_certificate

Use the BOSH CLI for Troubleshooting

  1. Run bosh -e MY-ENV login and provide your credentials to log in to the BOSH Director. Replace MY-ENV with the alias you set for your BOSH Director.

    $ bosh -e dev login
    User ():
    Password ():
    
  2. Use the following BOSH commands to troubleshoot your deployment:

  • VMs: Lists all VMs in a deployment
  • Cloud check: Cloud consistency check and interactive repair
  • SSH: Start an interactive session or execute commands with a VM

BOSH VMs

bosh vms provides an overview of the virtual machines (VMs) BOSH is managing as part of the current deployment.

To use this command, run bosh -e MY-ENV -d MY-DEPLOYMENT vms. Replace MY-ENV with your environment, and MY-DEPLOYMENT with a deployment. -d MY-DEPLOYMENT is optional.

$ bosh -e prod -d cf vms

bosh vms may show a VM in an unknown state. Run bosh cloud-check on VMs in an unknown state to have BOSH attempt to diagnose the problem.

You can also use bosh vms to identify VMs in your deployment, then use bosh ssh to SSH into an identified VM for further troubleshooting.

bosh vms supports the following arguments:

  • --vitals: Overview also includes load, CPU, memory usage, swap usage, system disk usage, ephemeral disk usage, and persistent disk usage for each VM
  • --dns: Overview also includes the DNS A record for each VM

BOSH Cloud Check

bosh cloud-check attempts to detect differences between the VM state database that the BOSH Director maintains and the actual state of the VMs.

To use this command, run bosh -e MY -d MY-DEPLOYMENT cloud-check. You can also use the alias bosh cck. Replace MY-ENV with your environment, and MY-DEPLOYMENT with a deployment. -d MY-DEPLOYMENT is optional.

$ bosh -e dev -d mysql cck

For each difference detected, bosh cloud-check offers repair options:

  • Reboot VM: Instructs BOSH to reboot a VM. Rebooting can resolve many transient errors.
  • Ignore problem: Instructs bosh cloud-check to do nothing. You might want to instruct bosh cloud-check to ignore a problem in order to run bosh ssh and attempt troubleshooting directly on the machine.
  • Reassociate VM with corresponding instance: Updates the BOSH Director state database. Use this option if you believe that the BOSH Director state database is in error and that a VM is correctly associated with a job.
  • Recreate VM using last known apply spec: Instructs BOSH to destroy a VM and recreate it from the deployment manifest the installer provides. Use this option if a VM is corrupted.
  • Delete VM reference: Instructs BOSH to delete a VM reference in the Director state database. If a VM reference exists in the state database, BOSH expects to find an agent running on the VM. Select this option only if you know this reference is in error. Once you delete the VM reference, BOSH can no longer control the VM.
Example Scenarios

Unresponsive Agent

$ bosh -e prod -d example-deployment cck
ccdb/0 (vm-3e37133c-bc33-450e-98b1-f86d5b63502a) is not responding:
- Ignore problem
- Reboot VM
- Recreate VM using last known apply spec
- Delete VM reference (DANGEROUS!)

Missing VM

$ bosh -e prod -d example-deployment cck
VM with cloud ID `vm-3e37133c-bc33-450e-98b1-f86d5b63502a' missing:
- Ignore problem
- Recreate VM using last known apply spec
- Delete VM reference (DANGEROUS!)

Unbound Instance VM

$ bosh -e prod -d example-deployment cck
VM vm-3e37133c-bc33-450e-98b1-f86d5b63502a' reports itself asccdb/0' but does not have a bound instance:
- Ignore problem
- Delete VM (unless it has persistent disk)
- Reassociate VM with corresponding instance

Out of Sync VM

$ bosh -e prod -d example-deployment cck
VM vm-3e37133c-bc33-450e-98b1-f86d5b63502a' is out of sync: expectedcf-d7293430724a2c421061: ccdb/0', got `cf-d7293430724a2c421061: nats/0':
- Ignore problem
- Delete VM (unless it has persistent disk)

BOSH SSH

Use bosh ssh to open secure shells into the VMs in your deployment.

To use bosh ssh:

  1. Run ssh-keygen -t rsa to provide BOSH with the correct public key.
  2. Accept the defaults.
  3. Identify a VM to SSH into. Run bosh -e MY-ENV -d MY-DEPLOYMENT vms to list the VMs in the given deployment. Replace MY-ENV with your environment alias and MY-DEPLOYMENT with the deployment name.
  4. Run bosh -e MY-ENV -d MY-DEPLOYMENT ssh VM-NAME/GUID. For example:
    $ bosh -e dev -d cf-deployment ssh diego-cell/abcd0123-a012-b345-c678-9def01234567

View BOSH Logs

You can access BOSH logs by two methods:

  • Using the bosh ssh command to access the log location
  • Using the bosh logs command to output the logs to standard output or to a file

Using the BOSH SSH Command

Use bosh ssh to open secure shells into the VMs in your deployment, then access the logs on the VM.

To use bosh ssh:

  1. Run ssh-keygen -t rsa to provide BOSH with the correct public key.
  2. Accept the defaults.
  3. Identify a VM to SSH into. Run bosh -e MY-ENV -d MY-DEPLOYMENT vms to list the VMs in the given deployment. Replace MY-ENV with your environment alias and MY-DEPLOYMENT with the deployment name.
  4. Run bosh -e MY-ENV -d MY-DEPLOYMENT ssh VM-NAME/GUID. For example:
    $ bosh -e dev -d cf-deployment ssh diego-cell/abcd0123-a012-b345-c678-9def01234567
  5. Review the /var/vcap/bosh/log/current log file.

Using the BOSH Logs Command

Use bosh logs to output BOSH logs to standard output or to a file.

To use bosh logs:

  1. Identify a VM. Run bosh -e MY-ENV -d MY-DEPLOYMENT vms to list the VMs in the given deployment. Replace MY-ENV with your environment alias and MY-DEPLOYMENT with the deployment name.
  2. Run bosh -e MY-ENV -d MY-DEPLOYMENT logs VM-NAME/GUID to view the logs from the identified VM. For example:
    $ bosh -e dev -d cf-deployment logs diego-cell/abcd0123-a012-b345-c678-9def01234567

Log in to a Non-Responsive BOSH VM

A VM under heavy system load can stop responding to some commands but still function in a limited way. If the VM does not respond to bosh ssh, use the following steps to open a secure shell in a more direct manner:

  1. Run bosh -e MY-ENV -d MY-DEPLOYMENT vms and note the IP address of the non-responsive VM.
    $ bosh -e prod -d cf-deployment vms
  2. Run ssh -t vcap@IP-ADDRESS 'sh' where IP-ADDRESS is the IP address of the non-responsive VM.
    $ ssh -t vcap@192.0.2.53 'sh'

Terminate a BOSH SSH Session

Use ~., entered at the beginning of a new line, to terminate a bosh ssh or ssh session.

To terminate a bosh ssh or ssh initiated from the jumpbox or other server, use ~~., entered at the beginning of a new line. The outermost secure shell session consumes the second ~ and passes the remaining ~. command to the inner ssh session.

Debug a Failing Job

  1. Run bosh -e MY-ENV -d MY-DEPLOYMENT vms to determine which job VMs in your deployment are failing. Note the job name and index of the failing VM.
  2. Run bosh -e MY-ENV -d MY-DEPLOYMENT ssh VM-NAME/GUID to open a secure shell into the failing VM.
  3. Run sudo su - to enter the root environment with root privileges.
  4. Run monit summary to determine which processes are not running.
  5. Review the log files found in /var/vcap/sys/log/ to determine the root cause of the process failures. Some of these logs are formatted using steno with timestamps instead of human-formatted dates. You can use steno-prettify to make the logs more human-readable.
  6. Use monit restart all or monit restart PROCESS to start the processes.

Execute the following commands to set up steno-prettify in the cloudcontroller:

export CC_JOB_DIR=/var/vcap/jobs/cloud_controller_ng
source $CC_JOB_DIR/bin/ruby_version.sh

CC_PACKAGE_DIR=/var/vcap/packages/cloud_controller_ng
export BUNDLE_GEMFILE=$CC_PACKAGE_DIR/cloud_controller_ng/Gemfile
export HOME=/home/vcap # rake needs it to be set to run tasks

if [ -f $BUNDLE_GEMFILE ]; then
    alias  steno-prettify="bundle exec steno-prettify"
    echo "ready to use steno-prettify alias, try steno-prettify on one of the following files:"
    find /var/vcap/sys/log/ -name "*.log" | egrep  -v "err|out|ctl" | xargs ls -al
else
    echo "could not find Gemfile into ${STENO_DIR}:" `ls -al ${BUNDLE_GEMFILE}`
fi

View Cloud Controller Diagnostics

If your BOSH deployment experiences a resource spike, an infinite loop, or another undesirable performance issue, you can refer to the Cloud Controller (CC) diagnostics JSON file for debugging. The file contains data that are unavailable in the output from Cloud Foundry logging, including stack traces for running threads.

Follow the instructions below to SSH into the Cloud Controller VM and populate the diagnostics file with updated information.

  1. Provide BOSH with the correct public key.
    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa
    
  2. Accept the defaults.
  3. Begin an SSH session to the deployment.
    $ bosh -e prod -d cf-deployment ssh diego-cell/abcd0123-a012-b345-c678-9def01234567
  4. Enter the number corresponding to the cloud_controller from the list of VMs.
  5. Retrieve the PID of the CC process.
    $ cat /var/vcap/sys/run/cloud_controller_ng/cloud_controller_ng.pid 
  6. Send the user defined USR1 signal to the CC process to populate the JSON log file for reference. This command does not terminate the CC process.
    $ kill -USR1 CLOUD-CONTROLLER-PID
    
  7. Navigate to the JSON file in the diagnostics directory to see the record of the USR1 signal passed to your CC VM. Refer to the value of the cc.directories.diagnostics property in /var/vcap/jobs/cloud_controller_ng/config/cloud_controller_ng.yml for the location of the diagnostics directory. The default location of the diagnostics directory is /var/vcap/data/cloud_controller_ng/diagnostics.

Use the Interactive Cloud Controller Shell

The Cloud Controller jobs embeds a pry shell. This may allow users to interact with cc_ng classes, such as scripting some operations, or to access the cc_db using model classes. For examples, the CF CAPI Tracker

$ cd /var/vcap/jobs/cloud_controller_ng
$ bin/console
[...]

Troubleshoot Cloud Foundry Databases

The postgres BOSH job hosts the different databases used by Cloud Foundry, such as diego, ccng, and uaadb. If the postgres job reaches 100% persistent disk usage, it can impact performance. Perform the following steps to diagnose your postgres job:

  1. Retrieve the credentials for the postgres job from your BOSH manifest.
  2. Connect to the database using the PostgreSQL client of your choice. Alternatively, you can connect to the database using a PostgreSQL web interface such as phppgadmin-cf or open an SSH tunnel to the database using cf ssh.
  3. Use the following SQL query to identify the largest schema:

    SELECT schema_name,
           pg_size_pretty(sum(table_size)::bigint),
           (sum(table_size) / pg_database_size(current_database())) * 100
    FROM (
      SELECT pg_catalog.pg_namespace.nspname as schema_name,
             pg_relation_size(pg_catalog.pg_class.oid) as table_size
      FROM   pg_catalog.pg_class
         JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace ON relnamespace = pg_catalog.pg_namespace.oid
    ) t
    GROUP BY schema_name
    ORDER BY schema_name
    
  4. Using the output from the above query, identify the largest table.

Force a VM Recreate

If BOSH or an operator identifies a VM as corrupted, BOSH can recreate the VM. This recreation function can fail if a drain script on the VM is broken or times out. To resolve this issue:

  1. SSH into the VM and use the sv stop agent command to kill the BOSH Agent.

    $ bosh -e dev -d cf-deployment ssh diego-cell/abcd0123-a012-b345-c678-9def01234567
    $ sv stop agent
    
  2. Let the BOSH Health Monitor automatically restart the VM. To follow the status of this process:

  • Run bosh -e MY-ENV tasks to determine the task ID of the “scan and fix” task. Add -d MY-DEPLOYMENT to view tasks for a specific deployment.
    $ bosh -e dev -d cf-deployment tasks
  • Run bosh -e MY-ENV task TASK-ID with the task ID of the “scan and fix” task.
    $ bosh -e dev task 83
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